Third edition of Artificial Intelligence: foundations of computational agents, Cambridge University Press, 2023 is now available (including the full text).
Index
Symbols A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 Symbols

= (equals)
A^{*} search
NP
∧ (and)
⇐ (baselevel if)
← (if)
← (if)
(entails)
(entails)
(true in)
≠ (not equal to)
φ (denotation of terms)
φ (denotation of terms)
π (denotation of predicate symbols)
π (meaning of atoms)
→ (rewritten as)
(derive)
∨ (or)
kfold cross validation
% (comment)
& (baselevel and)
kmeans algorithm  A

Abduction
abduction
abductive diagnosis
abilities
absolute error
absorbing state
abstractions
achievement goal
achievement goals
action
action
action profile
Action constraints
action features
action function
action profile
activation function
Active learning
active sensor
acts
actuator
actuators
acyclic
acyclic
acyclic directed graph
add list
additive independence
additive utility
admissibility
aerodynamics
agent
agent
agent
agent
agent system
agent system model
agent!embedded
agent!purposive
AI
algebra
algebraic variable
Allais Paradox
alphabeta (αβ) pruning
alternative
analysis
Analytical Engine
ancestors
annealing schedule
answer
answer
answer
answer
answer clause
answer extraction
answer extraction
anytime algorithm
application of substitution
approximately correct
approximately optimal
approximately optimal solution
arc
arc consistent
argument
arguments
Aristotelian definitions
array
Arrow's impossibility theorem
Artificial intelligence
ask
ask
asktheuser
asktheuser
askable
assertional knowledge base
assignment space
assumable
assumable
assumptionbased truth maintenance system
asymptotic complexity
asynchronous value iteration
ATMS
atom
atom
atomic clause
atomic clause
atomic proposition
atomic proposition
atomic symbol
attribute
auction
autonomous delivery robot
autonomous delivery robot
average reward
axiom
axiom schema
axiomatizing
axiomatizing
axioms
axioms
axioms of probability
axioms of rationality  B

backpropagation learning
Background knowledge
background knowledge
background variables
backtracking
backtracking
backward induction
bagging
base language
base level
baselevel algorithms
Basic Formal Ontology
Bayes' rule
Bayesian classifier
Bayesian learning
Bayesian networkseebelief network
Bayesian probability
beam search
belief monitoring
belief network
belief network
belief network
belief network!causality
belief network!inference problem
belief state
belief state
belief state transition function
beliefs
best response
bestfirst search
beta distribution
BFO
bias
bias
bias
biasfree
bidirectional search
binary constraint
binary feature
biology
bit
blame attribution problem
body
body!agent
body!rule
body!rule
Boltzmann distribution
Boltzmann distribution
Boolean property
Boolean variable
Boolean variable
Boolean variables
boosting
bottomup proof procedure
boundary of a process
boundary of an object
bounded rationality
branchandbound
branching factor
breadthfirst search  C

candidate elimination algorithm
canonical representation
cardinal
cardinal preference
case analysis
casebased reasoning
causal
causal link
causal mechanism
causal model
causal model
causal network
causal rule
causal rules
causal transduction
causality
causality
causality
central limit theorem
chain rule
chance node
characteristic function
children
choice space
choose
ChurchTuring thesis
clarity principle
clarity principle
Clark normal form
Clark's completion
Clark's completion
class
class
class
Classes
classes
classification
classification
classification tree
clause
clause!definite
clause!definite
clause!definite
clause!Horn
closed list
closedworld assumption
clustering
clusters
cognitive science
command
command function
command trace
commonsense reasoning
competitive
complements
complete
complete
complete knowledge assumption
complete!bottomup derivation
completeness of preferences
complex preferences
complexity
compositional measure of belief
compound proposition
computational
computational learning theory
computational limits dimension
computational linguistics
concepts
conceptualization
conceptualization
conditional effect
conditional expected value
conditional probability
conditional probability distribution
conditional probability distribution
conditionally independent
Condorcet paradox
conflict
conflict
conjunction
consequence set
consistencybased diagnosis
consistencybased diagnosis
consistent
consistent
consistent
constant
constrained optimization problem
constraint
constraint network
constraint optimization problem
constraint satisfaction problem
contextfree grammar
contextspecific independence
contingent attribute
continuants
continuous variable
controller
controller
controller
cooperate
cooperative
cooperative system
coordinate
coordination
cost
creditassignment problem
cross validation
cross validation
crossover
CSPseeconstraint satisfaction problem
culture
cumulative probability distribution
cumulative reward
cyc
cycle
cycle check
cyclic  D

DAG
Datalog
datatype property
DBN
DCGseedefinite clause grammar
dead reckoning
debugging
debugging!incorrect answers
debugging!infinite loops
debugging!missing answers
decision network
decision network
decision tree
decision function
decision network
decision network
decision node
decision tree
decision tree
decision tree learning
decision tree!learning
decision tree!learning
decision variable
decision!sequential
decision!sequential
decision!single
decisiontheoretic planning
deduction
deduction
Deep Space One
default
default
definite clause
definite clause
definite clause
definite clause grammar (DCG)
definite clause resolution
delay
delayed
delete list
delivery robot
delivery robot
DENDRAL
denote
dense
dependent continuant
dependent continuant
depthbounded metainterpreter
depthfirst search
derivation
derivation
derivation
derived
derived
derived
derived
Derived knowledge
description logics
design
design
design space
Design time reasoning
desires
deterministic
diagnosis
diagnosis!abductive
diagnosis!consistencybased
diagnosis!decision theoretic
diagnosis!probabilistic
diagnostic assistant
diagnostic assistant
dictator
difference list
Differentia
dimension!computational limits
dimension!effect uncertainty
dimension!learning
dimension!modularity
dimension!number of agents
dimension!planning horizon
dimension!preference
dimension!representation scheme
dimension!sensing uncertainty
directed acyclic graph
directed graph
Dirichlet distribution
discount factor
discounted reward
discrete
discrete variable
disjunction
disjunction
disjunction
disjunctive normal form
disposition
distribution!normal
do
domain
domain
domain
domain
domain
domain splitting
domain consistent
Domain experts
domain ontology
dominant strategy
dominates
Don'tcare nondeterminism
Don'tknow nondeterminism
dot product
DPLL
dynamic
dynamic belief network
dynamic decision network
dynamic programming  E

economically efficient
effect
effect
Effect constraints
effect uncertainty dimension
effectively computable
effectors
efficient
eligibility trace
elimination ordering
EM
EM
EM
EM
EM
embedded agent
embodied
empirical frequency
endogenous variables
engineering goal
ensemble learning
entails
entity
entropy
entropy
environment
epistemological
epistemology
equal
error
error of hypothesis
error!absolute
error!sum squares
error!worst case
Euclidean distance
Euclidean distance
evaluation
evaluation function
evaluation function
event calculus
evidence
evidential model
evolutionary algorithm
exclusiveor
existence uncertainty
existentially quantified variable
exogenous variables
expanding
expectation maximization (EM)
expected monetary value
expected utility
expected utility
expected value
expected value!of utility of a policy
experience
expert system
expert opinion
expert systems
expert systems
explained away
explained away
explained away
explanation
exploit
explore
expression
extensional
extensionally
extensive form
external knowledge source
extrapolation  F

f(p)
factor
factor
factored finite state machine
factored representation
factorization
fail
fail
failing naturally
failing unnaturally
failure
fair
fair
fairness
false
false
false
falsenegative error
falsenegative error
falsenegative error
falsepositive error
falsepositive error
falsepositive error
falsepositive error
fault
feature engineering
featurebased representation of actions
features
features
feedforward neural network
fiat part of an object
fiat part of process
fillers
filtering
filtering
filtering
finite failure
finite horizon
finite state controller
finite state machine
Firstorder predicate calculus
fixed point
flat
floundering goal
fluent
flying machines
for all
forward chaining
forward planner
frame problem
frame rule
frame rules
frames
framing effect
frequentist
fringe
frontier
fully observable dynamic decision network
Fully observable
fully observable Markov decision process
function
function
function!symbol
fuzzy terms  G

gambling
game tree
Gaussian distribution
general boundary
generalize
generalized additive independence
generalized answer clause
generalized arc consistency algorithm
generate and test
generateandtest
genetic algorithms
Genus
Gibbs distribution
Gibbs distribution
Gini index
Gini index
global minimum
goal
goal
goal
Goal constraints
goal!node
goals
goals
goals
Gradient descent
gradient descent
grammar
grammar!contextfree
grammar!definite clause
graph
greedy
greedy
greedy ascent
greedy descent
ground
ground instance
ground instance
ground representation  H

h(n)
hard clustering
hard constraint
hard constraints
head
head
help system
help system
Herbrand interpretation
heuristic depthfirst search
heuristic!function
heuristic!knowledge
heuristic!search
hidden Markov model (HMM)
hidden variable
hidden variables
hierarchical
hierarchical Bayesian model
hierarchical control
hill climbing
history
history
history
HMMseehidden Markov model
Hoeffding's inequality
horizon
Horn clause
how
how question
how question
humancomputer interaction (HCI)
hybrid system
hyperparameters
hypothesis
hypothesis space
hypothesis space  I

i.i.d. (independent and identically distributed)
identity uncertainty
imperfect information game
implication
implication
incoming arc
inconsistent
incorrect answer
incremental gradient descent
indefinite horizon
indefinite horizon
independent
independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.)
independent choice logic (ICL)
independent continuant
independent continuant
indicator variable
indicator variable
indifferent
individual
individualpropertyvalue
Individuals
individuals
individuals
individuals
induction
induction
inductive logic programming
inference
infinite horizon
infinite horizon
influence diagram
information content
information gain
information gain
information set
information theory
information theory
init
Initialstate constraints
input features
insects
instance
instance
instance
instance space
instance!ground
insurance
integrity constraint
intelligent action
intelligent tutoring system
intended interpretation
intended interpretation
intensional
intensionally
intention
interpolation
interpretation
interpretation
intersection
intervention
intervention
intervention
involve
islanddriven search
islands
iterative best improvement
iterative deepening
iterative deepening!A^{*}  J

Java
Java
join
joint probability distribution
joint probability distribution  K

kdtree
kernel functions
Knowledge
Knowledge
knowledge base
knowledge base
knowledge base
knowledge base
knowledge base
knowledge base
knowledge base
knowledge base
Knowledge engineers
knowledge is given
knowledge is learned
knowledge level
knowledge level
knowledgebased system
Knowledgelevel debugging  L

Landmarks
language
language bias
language!natural
latent tree model
latent variable
latent variable
latent variables
learning
learning
learning bias
learning dimension
learning rate
learning!Bayesian
learning!bias
learning!casebased
learning!decision trees
learning!decision tree
learning!decision trees
learning!multiagent
learning!neural network
learning!PAC
learning!PAC
learning!relational
learning!supervised
learning!to coordinate
learning!unsupervised
learning!unsupervised
learning!version space
learning(
learning(
learning(
learning(
learning)
learning)
learning)
learning)
leaveoneout crossvalidation
leaves
level of abstraction
lifelong learning
likelihood
likelihood of the data
linear function
linear regression
linear regression
linearly separable
Linnaean taxonomy
lists
literal
literal
liveness
local minimum
local optimum
local search
local search
local search
localization
logic
logic program
logic programming
logical consequence
logical consequence
logical variable
logically follows
logistic function
longterm memory
loop check
lottery
lowestcostfirst search  M

machine learning
maintenance goals
maintenance goal
MAP model
mapping
margin
Markov assumption
Markov blanket
Markov chain
Markov decision process
Markov decision process
matrix multiplication
maximum a posteriori probability
maximum entropy
maximum entropy
maximum likelihood model
maximum likelihood model
maximumlikelihood estimate
MDL principle
MDPseeMarkov decision process
measure
mechanism
mechanism
mechanism design
metainterpreter
metainterpreter
metainterpreter
metainterpreter!ask the user
metainterpreter!build proof tree
metainterpreter!builtin predicates
metainterpreter!delayed goals
metainterpreter!depthbounded
metainterpreter!disjunction
metainterpreter!vanilla
metalevel
metalanguage
MGU
minfactor elimination ordering
minimal diagnosis
minimal explanation
minimal model
minimal!conflict
minimal!model
minimax
minimum deficiency elimination ordering
minimum description length (MDL)
minimum fixed point
missing at random
model
model
model
model
model
modular
Modularity
modularity dimension
modus ponens
money pump
monitoring
monitoring
monotone restriction
monotonic
more general hypothesis
more specific hypothesis
most general unifier
most general unifier
multiagent decision network
multiple agent
Multiplepath pruning
multiplepath pruning
mutex constraints
MYCIN
myopic
myopically optimal  N

N3
naive Bayesian classifier
naive Bayesian classifier
naive Bayesian classifier
Nash equilibrium
natural kind
natural kinds
natural kinds
natural language processing
nature
nature
nearest neighbors
negation
negation
negation as failure
negation as failure
negation as failure
negative examples
neighbor
neighbors
neural network
no
noforgetting agent
noforgetting decision network
node
noisy
noisy or
nondeterministic
nondeterministic procedure
nonground representation
nonmonotonic
nonparametric distribution
nonplanning
nonserial dynamic programming
nonterminal symbol
nonlinear planning
normal distribution
normalform game
Notation 3
NPcomplete
NPhard
number of agents dimension
number uncertainty  O

object
object
object aggregate
object language
object property
objectoriented programming (OOP) languages
objectoriented languages
objective function
observation
observation
observations
observations
occurrent
occurrents
occurs check
Ockham's razor
off policy
offpolicy learner
Offline
Offline computation
offline learning
omniscient agent
onpolicy learner
onepoint crossover
Online
Online
Online computation
online learning
ontological
ontology
ontology
ontology
ontology
ontology
ontology
OOPseeobjectoriented programming
openworld assumption
optimal
optimal
optimal policy
optimal policy
optimal policy
optimal solution
optimal solution
optimal solution
optimality criterion
optimization problem
oracle
oracle
Ordersofmagnitude reasoning
ordinal
ordinal preference
organizations
outcome
outcome
outcome
outgoing arc
overfitting
OWL
OWL  P

PAC learning
PAC learning
pair
parametric distribution
parametrized random variable
paramodulation
parents
partial
partial evaluation
partialorder planning
Partially observable
partially observable game
partially observable Markov decision process
partially observable Markov decision process
particle
Particle filtering
particle filtering
passive sensor
past experiences
path
path consistency
payoff matrix
percept
percept stream
percept trace
perception
perceptron
perfect information
perfect information game
perfect rationality
philosophy
physical symbol system hypothesis
physical symbol system hypothesis
physical symbol systems
pixels
plan
planner
planning
planning horizon
planning horizon dimension
planning!as a CSP
planning!forward
planning!partialorder
planning!regression
planning(
planning)
plate model
plate model
point estimate
policy
policy
policy
Policy iteration
policy search
POMDP
population
population
positive examples
possible
possible world
possible world
possible world
possible world
possible world
posterior probability
pragmatics
precision
precisionrecall curve
precondition
precondition
precondition
precondition
Precondition constraints
predicate symbol
preference
preference elicitation
preference bias
preference dimension
primitive
primitive
primitive
primitive
primitive!knowledge
prior count
prior knowledge
prior probability
prisoner's dilemma
probabilistic independence
probabilistic inference
probabilistic relational model (PRM)
probability
probability
probability measure
probability density function
probability distribution
probability mass
probability!axioms
probability!conditional
probability!posterior
probability!prior
probability!semantics
probability(
probability)
probable solution
probable solution
probably approximately correct
probably approximately correct
probably approximately correct learning
process
process
process aggregate
processual context
processual entity
projection
Prolog
Prolog
Prolog
proof
proof procedure
proof tree
proof!bottomup
proof!topdown
prop
Properties
property
property
property inheritance
proposal distribution
proposal distribution
proposition
proposition
proposition
propositional satisfiability
propositional calculus
propositional definite clause resolution
propositional definite clauses
propositional definite clauses
prospect theory
proved
pseudocount
psychology
punishments
pure strategy
pure symbol
Purposive agents  Q

Q^{*}
Qlearning
Qvalue
Qvalue
Q^{π}
Qualitative derivatives
qualitative reasoning
quality
quantitative reasoning
query
query
query
querying the user  R

random initialization
random restart
random sampling
random variables
random walk
random worlds
random worlds
range
range
rational
rational agent
RDF
RDF
RDF
RDF Schema
RDFS
rdf:type
rdfs:subClassOf
reachable
realizable entity
reasoning
recall
recognition
record linkage
recursively enumerable
reflection
regression
regression
Regression planning
regression planning
regression tree
reify
reinforcement learning
reinforcement learning
rejection sampling
relation
relation
relational algebra
relational database
relational descriptions
relational probability model
relational uncertainty
relations
relations
representation
representation scheme
representation scheme dimension
representation scheme dimension
resampling
resolution
resolution
resolution!SLD
resolution!SLD
resolvent
resource
resource
Resource Description Framework
Resource Description Framework
restriction bias
return
revelation principle
rewards
rewrite rule
rewrite rule
risk averse
robot
robot
robot
ROC curve
role
role
root
rule
rule
rule
rule of inference
run
runtime distribution  S

safety goals
safety goals
sample average
sample complexity
SARSA(λ)
satisfiable
satisficing
satisficing solution
satisfies
satisfies!policy
satisfy
scenario
scheme
scheme
scientific goal
scope
scope
scope
scope
search and score
search bias
search!A^{*}
search!bestfirst
search!bidirectional
search!breadthfirst
search!cyclechecking
search!depth first
search!dynamic programming
search!gradient descent
search!heuristic
search!island driven
search!iterative deepening
search!local search
search!lowestcostfirst
search(
search)
Secondorder logic
secondprice auction
select
selection
selector function
semantic web
semantic interoperability
semantic interoperability
semantic network
semantic web
Semantics
semantics
semantics!propositional calculus
semantics!variables
sensing uncertainty dimension
sensor
sensor fusion
Sensors
sensors
separable control problem
sequential decision problem
sequential prisoner's dilemma
set
set difference
shortterm memory
sigmoid
simulated agent
simulated annealing
single agent
single decision
singlestage decision network
site
situation
situation calculus
SLD derivation
SLD derivation
SLD resolution
SLD resolution
slots
Smalltalk
Smoothing
smoothing
SNLP
social preference function
society
soft clustering
soft constraint
soft constraints
softmax
Software engineers
software agent
software engineering
solution
solution
sound
spatial region
spatial region
spatiotemporal region
specialization operator
specific boundary
squashed linear function
stable
stack
stages
start node
start states
starvation
starvation
state
State constraints
state features
state space
statespace graph
statespace graph
statespace problem
states
static
stationary
stationary
stationary policy
step size
step function
step size
stimuli
stochastic
stochastic beam search
stochastic local search
Stochastic simulation
stochastic strategy
stopping state
strategic form of a game
strategically
strategy
strategy
strategy
strategy profile
strategy profile
strictly dominated
strictly dominates
strictly preferred
STRIPS assumption
STRIPS representation
STRIPS representation
structure learning
subClassOf
subgameperfect equilibrium
subgoal
subject
subjective probability
substitutes
substitution
sumofsquares error
sumofsquares error
supervised learning
supervised learning
supervised learning
support set
support set
support vector machine (SVM)
SVMseesupport vector machine
symbol
symbol
symbol level
symbol system
syntax
syntax!Datalog
syntax!propositional definite clauses
synthesis
systematicity  T

tabu list
target features
TD error
tells
temperature
temporal difference error
temporal region
term
term
terminal symbol
terminological knowledge base
test examples
theorem
there exists
thing
thinking
threat
Time
time
titfortat
topdown proof procedure
total assignment
total reward
trading agent
trading agent
training examples
training examples
training examples
transduction
transitivity of preferences
tree
tree augmented naive Bayesian (TAN) network
treewidth
treewidth
treewidth
triple
triple representation
triples
triples
triples
true
true
true
true
truepositive rate
truth maintenance system
truth value
truthful
try
tuple
tuple
tuple
Turing test
Turtle
tutoring system
twostep belief network
type
type
type  U

UML
unary constraint
unconditionally independent
unification
unification
unifier
Uniform Resource Identifier
Uniform Resource Identifier
Uniform Resource Identifier
uninformed search strategies
union
unique names assumption
unit resolution
units
universally quantified
universally quantified variable
unsatisfiable
unstable
unsupervised learning
unsupervised learning
URI
useful
user
user
Users
utility
utility
utility node  V

V^{π}
V^{π}
V^{*}
validation set
value
value of control
value of information
vanilla metainterpreter
vanilla metainterpreter
variable
variable assignment
Variable elimination
variable elimination
variable elimination!belief networks
variable elimination!CSPs
variable elimination!decision networks
variable!algebraic
variable!Boolean
variable!continuous
variable!decision
variable!discrete
variable!existentially quantified
variable!logical
variable!random
variable!universally quantified
variable!universally quantified
variational inference
VCG mechanism
verb
version space
VEseevariable elimination
virtual body  W

walk
weakest precondition
Weakly dominated
weakly preferred
Web Ontology Language
what
why question
whynot question
win or learn fast (WoLF)
word
world
worstcase error
wrapper  X
 XML
 Y
 yes
 Z

zerosum game
zerosum games