1.9 References and Further Reading

The ideas in this chapter have been derived from many sources. Here, we will try to acknowledge those that are explicitly attributable to particular authors. Most of the other ideas are part of AI folklore; trying to attribute them to anyone would be impossible.

Haugeland (1997) contains a good collection of articles on the philosophy behind artificial intelligence, including that classic paper of Turing (1950) that proposes the Turing test. Cohen (2005) gives a recent discussion of the Turing test.

Nilsson (2009) gives a detailed description of the history of AI. Chrisley and Begeer (2000) present many classic papers on AI.

The physical symbol system hypothesis was posited by Newell and Simon (1976). See also Simon (1996), who discusses the role of symbol systems in a multidisciplinary context. The distinctions between real, synthetic, and artificial intelligence are discussed by Haugeland (1985), who also provides useful introductory material on interpreted, automatic formal symbol systems and the Church-Turing thesis. For a critique of the symbol-system hypothesis see Brooks (1990) and Winograd (1990). Nilsson (2007) evaluates the hypothesis in terms of recent criticisms.

The use of anytime algorithms is due to Horvitz (1989) and Boddy and Dean (1994). See Dean and Wellman (1991), Chapter 8, Zilberstein (1996), and Russell (1997) for introductions to bounded rationality.

For discussions on the foundations of AI and the breadth of research in AI see Kirsh (1991a), Bobrow (1993), and the papers in the corresponding volumes, as well as Schank (1990) and Simon (1995). The importance of knowledge in AI is discussed in Lenat and Feigenbaum (1991) and Smith (1991).

For overviews of cognitive science and the role that AI and other disciplines play in that field, see Gardner (1985), Posner (1989), and Stillings et al. (1987).

Purchasing agents can become very complex. Sandholm (2007) describes how AI can be used for procurement of multiple goods with complex preferences.

A number of AI texts are valuable as reference books complementary to this book, providing a different perspective on AI. In particular, Russell and Norvig (2010) give a more encyclopedic overview of AI and provide a complementary source for many of the topics covered in this book. They provide an outstanding review of the scientific literature, which we do not try to duplicate.

The Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence [Shapiro (1992)] is an encyclopedic reference on AI written by leaders in the field and still provides background on some of the classic topics. There are also a number of collections of classic research papers. The general collections of most interest to readers of this book include Webber and Nilsson (1981) and Brachman and Levesque (1985). More specific collections are given in the appropriate chapters.

The Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) provides introductory material and news at their AI Topics web site (http://www.aaai.org/AITopics/html/welcome.html). AI Magazine, published by AAAI, often has excellent overview articles and descriptions of particular applications. IEEE Intelligent Systems also provides accessible articles on AI research.

There are many journals that provide in-depth research contributions and conferences where the most up-to-date research is found. These include the journals Artificial Intelligence, the Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, and Computational Intelligence, as well as more specialized journals such as Neural Computation, Computational Linguistics, Machine Learning, the Journal of Automated Reasoning, the Journal of Approximate Reasoning, IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, and the Theory and Practice of Logic Programming. Most of the cutting-edge research is published first in conferences. Those of most interest to a general audience are the biennial International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI), the AAAI Annual Conference, the European Conference on AI (ECAI), the Pacific Rim International Conference on AI (PRICAI), various national conferences, and many specialized conferences and workshops.