13.7 References and Further Reading

Brachman and Levesque (2004) give an overview of knowledge representation. Davis (1990) is an accessible introduction to a wealth of knowledge representation issues in commonsense reasoning. Brachman and Levesque (1985) present many classic knowledge representation papers. See Woods (2007) for a recent overview of semantic networks.

For an overview of the philosophical and computational aspects of ontologies, see Smith (2003). For an overview of the semantic web see Antoniou and van Harmelen (2008); Berners-Lee et al. (2001); and Hendler et al. (2002). The description of OWL in this chapter is based on OWL-2; see Hitzler et al. (2009); Motik et al. (2009b); and Motik et al. (2009a). Turtle is presented in Beckett and Berners-Lee (2008).

BFO is described in Grenon and Smith (2004). Other top-level ontologies include DOLCE [Gangemi et al. (2003)], SUMO [Niles and Pease (2001)], and Cyc [Panton et al. (2006)]. Noy and Hafner (1997) compare a number of different top-level ontologies.

Meta-interpreters for logic are discussed by Bowen (1985) and Kowalski (1979). See the collection by Abramson and Rogers (1989).