## 5.9 References and Further Reading

The semantics for propositional logic presented here was invented by
Tarski (1956). For introductions to logic see Copi (1982) for
an informal overview, Enderton (1972) and Mendelson (1987) for more
formal approaches, and Bell and Machover (1977) for advanced topics. For
in-depth discussion of the use of logic in AI see the multivolume
*Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic
Programming* [Gabbay et al. (1993)].

The tell-ask notion of a knowledge base is described by Levesque (1984).

Consistency-based diagnosis was formalized by de Kleer et al. (1992).

Much of the foundation of definite and Horn clause reasoning was developed
in the context of a richer logic that is presented in
Chapter 12 and is studied under the umbrella of **logic programming**.
Resolution was developed by Robinson (1965).
SLD resolution
was pioneered by Kowalski (1974) and
Colmerauer et al. (1973), building on previous work by
Green (1969), Hayes (1973), and Hewitt (1969).
The fixed point semantics was developed by
van Emden and Kowalski (1976). For more detail on the semantics and
properties of logic programs see Lloyd (1987).

The work on negation as failure is based on the work of
Clark (1978). Apt and Bol (1994)
provide a survey of different techniques and semantics for handling
negation as failure. The bottom-up negation-as-failure proof procedure
is based on the **truth maintenance
system** of
Doyle (1979), who also considered incremental addition and
removal of clauses; see Exercise 5.15. The use of
abnormality for default reasoning was advocated by
McCarthy (1986).

The abduction framework presented here is based on the assumption-based truth maintenance system (ATMS) of de Kleer (1986) and on Theorist [Poole et al. (1987)]. Abduction has been used for diagnosis [Peng and Reggia (1990)], natural language understanding [Hobbs et al. (1993)], and temporal reasoning [Shanahan (1989)]. Kakas et al. (1993) and Kakas and Denecker (2002) review abductive reasoning. For an overview of the work of Peirce, see Burch (2008).

Dung (1995) presents an abstract framework for arguments that provides a foundation for much of the work in this area. Dung et al. (2007) present a recent argumentation framework. Chesnevar et al. (2000) and Besnard and Hunter (2008) survey work on arguments.

The bottom-up Horn implementation for finding explanations is based on the ATMS [de Kleer (1986)]. The ATMS is more sophisticated in that it considers the problem of incremental addition of clauses and assumables, which we ignored (see Exercise 5.16).

Causal models are discussed by Pearl (2000) and Spirtes et al. (2000).